I submit that the lunar surface would be an ideal location for additional resources to detect and track Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs) and Potentional Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). Ideally two surface platforms are suggested (one on the near-side and one on the far-side).

Radiation - The Van Allen radiation belt was believed to consist of two regions: the first from 600 miles to 3,700 miles altitude; and the second 8,000 miles to 38,000 miles altitude. Earlier this year (2013) NASA discovered and monitored a third region until a shock wave from the Sun destroyed it.
The moon is an average distance of 238,900 miles from the Earth. During the Apollo program several Apollo astronauts reported seeing bright "spots". These bright spots were later determined to be cosmic energy impacts on the optic nerve likely from solar activity. I will not discuss "hardening" against radiation other than to say that the Apollo manned capsules, the ISS and some satellites lack this level of protection.
Manned long duration space missions such as returning to the Moon or going to Mars will require a new science of radiation protection which is currently being explored.

Radiation also comes in the form of Gamma-Ray bursts monitored by NASA SWIFT.