WHY Return to the Moon? - Page 2
We know much about radiation - yet protection against it is still in its infancy. Nuclear accidents such as SL-1, Detroit, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima and many others show we are seriously lacking in countermeasures and protection. Increased shielding in materials or liquid is expensive and moreso when you consider launching them from the Earth's surface. Radiation has an immediate impact on biologics, electronics, material integrity and can make all of them radioactive.
In respect to the Moon one suggestion has been to bury manned habitats under the regolith. Studies such as this one with lunar simulates indicate a level of protection. However lunar "dust" is comprised of very fine rock, silica and metals giving them grinding attributes and would require a mechanism to dig and safely adhere it to the exposed surfaces of any structure. Any landing or impact near a habitat would stir the environment up. It would be more practical to put a habitat into a crater and scoop regolith over it. Regolith and dust would be found on asteroids.
Our standard radiation shielding is based on absorption and not redirection
Absorption is required in nuclear reactors to slow down the nuclear process. Redirection can be compared to the Earth's magnetic field redirecting the streaming from the Sun in the form of solar flares or Coronal Mass Ejections. Managing space radiation can be applied to terrestrial protections. Current terrestrial nuclear power generation is a threat to survival.
Electrostatic charging/discharging can impact biologic, mechanical and electronic systems. Electronic components coatings and other measures can minimize electrostatic impact. Structures such as manned spacecraft and the ISS can be electrostatically charged. Asteroids, the lunar surface and Mars can have surface charging. The cause of this charging is from solar activity and space radiation. Reviewing the following links show the dangers with electrostatic charging/discharging and rigolith - they must be mitigated.
On September 6, 2013 NASA launched the LADEE spacecraft "...to gather detailed information about the lunar atmosphere, conditions near the surface and environmental influences on lunar dust." LADEE science results and implications for exporation. LADEE Science Results and Implications for Exploration slideshow.
Each Apollo astronaut on the moon showed "dust" collection on their spacesuits. Photographs of Apollo 17 astronauts Cernan and Schmitt around the Taurus-Littrow landing site showed considerable discoloration by lunar dust due to electrostatic charging.
Electrostatic charging and dust are going to be a serious issue. Any manned habitat is going to require a "clean room" for collection and removal of particles.